• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Litb4 Coursework Ideas

Spoiler:

Show

"I became insane with long intervals of horrible sanity". To what extent can it be argued that torture and insanity are integral elements of The Prussian Officer, The Pit and the Pendulum and The Tell-Tale Heart?

Insanity could be defined as “the state of being mentally ill; madness”, thus it is no surprise that writers such as Edgar Allan Poe and D. H. Lawrence beauteously integrated aspects of insanity into their stories in order to chisel the perfect piece of gothic literature, simultaneously luring the reader in to a world carved by madness and drowned in an eerie atmosphere. Portraying one as insane is a powerful gothic literary device that has been used throughout the era of the gothic, notably in Matthew Lewis' “The Monk” and Horace Walpole’s “The Castle of Otranto”. One way in which writers complement and enhance the insanity of their sadistic characters is through the psychological and mental torture that is often inflicted upon the victims of the novel or story, a prime example being Hindley in Bronte’s “Wuthering Heights”. Although many deemed Edgar Allan Poe as “insane” himself, in the words of C. Chauncey Burr in 1852, “that perfection of horror which abounds in his writings, has been unjustly attributed to some moral defect in the man”; indeed it could be suggested that Poe simply embedded his writing with the “unnatural” to enhance its gothic nature. Lawrence, on the other hand, was perhaps influenced by real life events, as, as stated by Keith Cushman, “the temporal, biographical and cultural context of this short story is connected with Lawrence's stay in Germany in the early summer of 1913.”

Extensive use of repetition within “The Tell-Tale Heart” reflects the sheer extent of insanity; the narrator is undoubtedly psychologically unstable and such madness simply heightens the terror the story inflicts upon the “unfortunate” reader. This is clear in the opening sentence when the narrator says “TRUE! --nervous --very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad?” The enhancement of his insanity is conveyed through the repetition of “nervous” and “very”, which evidently portray his unstable state of mind and thus the likeliness for him to commit such a brutal and sadistic murder. Furthermore, the language and syntax used by Edgar Allan Poe has the ability to lure the reader to believe that the narrator is anxious and uneasy; a character whose insanity shines through his speech. Unlike the narrator of “The Tell Tale Heart”, the narrator of “The Pit and the Pendulum” maintains the capacity to recount faithfully and rationally his surroundings while also describing his own emotional turmoil and the burden of emotional distress does not hinder his account of the event.

Insanity is similarly expressed through repetition whereby the victim of torture expresses “the deepest slumber -- no! In delirium -- no! In a swoon -- no! In death -- no!” The repetition of the word “no!” radiates a feeling of madness as a result of the brutal tribulation to which the prisoner of the Spanish Inquisition is subjected, or perhaps the determination the prisoner has to prevent himself from going insane. "I became insane with long periods of horrible sanity" perfectly defines his state of mind, reflecting that the prisoner extensively dreads the anticipation he is left to endure, anticipation that appears to be far worse than completely losing his mind due to the encroaching insanity. This could, however, be deemed a form of mental entrapment wherein the victim is confined to a certain state of mind. The gothic trope of madness expresses this form of entrapment; the insane are trapped in their own mental universe; a universe which no one else can enter, emphasised to a greater extent when the protagonist says “down -- steadily down it crept…Down -- certainly, relentlessly down…Down -- still unceasingly -- still inevitably down”. The entrapment of characters in gothic literature effectively mirrors the entrapment faced by individuals in the Victorian society; individuals were entrapped as they were forced to repress certain desires in order to observe strict Victorian social decorum whilst working towards an ordered society. Just as Edgar Allan Poe does, D. H. Lawrence uses the literary and language device of repetition in “The Prussian Officer” to express the mild insanity of the Officer that may be present as a result of his pessimistic and mundane life. The Officer not only shows his insanity in his repetition of the sentence “Why have you a piece of pencil in your ear?", but the psychological torture and intimidation that he inflicts on the orderly.

“I do not suffer from insanity, I enjoy every minute of it” - Edgar Allan Poe perfectly defines the opinions of the characters used in “The Tell-Tale Heart”, “The Pit and the Pendulum” and “The Prussian Officer”. The narrator of “The Pit and the Pendulum” appears to thrive off his own insanity, evident in the way that he says “Hearken! And observe how healthily --how calmly I can tell you the whole story”; no sane person could recount for their murderous and torturous actions “healthily” and “calmly”. Furthermore, the way in which he constantly reassures the reader of his sanity ultimately has the counter effect of expressing the insanity which he possesses as shown by his rhetorical questioning of “how, then, am I mad?”, “Ha! would a madman have been so wise as this?” and “If still you think me mad, you will think so no longer when I describe the wise precautions I took for the concealment of the body”. If the protagonist was in fact sane, why would he feel it were his duty to constantly remind the reader of the fact that he is not “mad”? Further evidence of the narrator “enjoying every minute” of his insanity is notable from the way he claims the reader will “have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in!” and how he “smiled gaily, to find the deed so far done.” Enjoyment of insanity is also a gothic element integral to “The Pit and the Pendulum”, however rather than the enjoyment being expressed by the protagonist and victim, it is enjoyed by those enforcing the brutal torture upon him. Evidently, the fact that the torturers appear “thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness” as well expressing “stern contempt of human torture”, they “enjoy every minute” of their insanity. This also plays a pivotal role in “The Prussian Officer” as it becomes apparent that the Officer seeks pleasure in torturing the orderly, thus seeks pleasure in his minor insanity. This is notable when “he had felt at once a thrill of deep pleasure” after brutally attacking the orderly with his belt. Furthermore, after psychologically tormenting the orderly, the Officer expresses a “sickly smile”, showing that his regrets are minimal and he thrives off both his insanity and the discomfort of others.

Torture, “to inflict extreme pain or physical and mental punishment on somebody” often plays a pivotal role in gothic texts; it has the manipulative ability to inflict terror on the reader, much like the victims within the texts themselves face. Since the alleged first gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto, the human body has been a prominent topic of uncertainty, disruption and transgression, such qualities becoming magnified throughout the texts in question, with torture further enhancing the insanity. Those who enforce torturous acts upon the innocent clearly have a degree of insanity whether it be major or minor. The narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart” provides a fine example for such an analogy as he takes pleasure from psychologically tormenting the old man, evident when he says “it was the beating of the old man's heart. It increased my fury, as the beating of a drum stimulates the soldier into courage.” That the narrator can hear the beating of the old man’s heart suggests the stress and psychological torture that has been inflicted upon him and becomes an inevitable part of his “downfall” due the heart’s weakening. This is further supported as it is clear that “the old man's terror must have been extreme” as the heart beat “grew louder…louder every moment”. However, the beating could also be expressed in a metaphorical sense; a sign of the protagonist’s guilt or, in contrast, his desire to kill, the heartbeat representing his mind encouraging him. The narrator not only lures the old man into psychological torture, but also physical during and after the inhumane murder. The way in which he “dragged him to the floor, and pulled the heavy bed over him” and afterwards “dismembered the corpse” and “cut off the head and the arms and the legs” conveys the idea that torture is a vital component of gothic texts in order to create a sense of terror, despair and disbelief for the reader. This also reinforces the idea of the body being an integral topic of focus within gothic literature, similar to Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein whereby the human body is often conveyed in a disturbing, dehumanising manner as “[Victor’s] limbs were nearly frozen, and his body dreadfully emaciated by fatigue and suffering.”

Edgar Allan Poe adopted a similar strategy of engraving torture into the allegory “The Pit and the Pendulum” in order to intensify the gothic nature of the text which is solely based around the prisoner’s account of torture during the Spanish Inquisition. The text opens to the severe degree of torture the prisoner is facing; he is “sick unto death with that long agony”. Furthermore, the prisoner “felt every fibre in [his] frame thrill as if [he] had touched the wire of a galvanic battery”. “Galvanic battery” suggests immense pain, thus conveying the cruel horrors to which the torturers had previously subjected him. Moreover, it conveys the idea that the actions of the torturers become effectively mechanical and consequently the ‘norm’. Of course, the aspects of torture are of high frequency within “The Pit and the Pendulum” much like they were during the Inquisition; an institution of the Catholic government in fifteenth and sixteenth century Spain that persecuted all Protestants and heretical Catholics. Despite the fact much of Poe’s perception of such historical fact is misrepresented, he transforms the theories into enhanced destruction in his gothic pieces; he thrives off the misrepresentation.

Infliction of pain can also be seen to enhance the story’s gothic qualities. The prisoner states “I trembled at the sound of my own voice, and had become in every respect a fitting subject for the species of torture which awaited me”. Poe’s language Poe, notably the word “species”, alienates the methods of torture and enhances the fact that the prisoner remains distant to what he is facing, disregarding them for what they are and providing the methods with a perhaps “gentle” name in order to blind himself from the cruel reality. The prisoner is also “consumed with intolerable thirst”, suggesting that the torturers lack any form of sympathy; they deprive and weaken him, luring him closer to his demise. He continues to say how “entrapment into torment, formed an important portion of all the grotesquerie of these dungeon deaths”, integrating both the gothic element of torture as well as the traditional implementation of entrapment. This is much like the physical entrapment found in Stoker’s Dracula as, when Harker is driven to Dracula’s castle, he is subjected to physical entrapment in the landscape of Transylvania, as is evident when “[it] seemed to me that we were simply going over and over the same ground again; and so I took note of some salient point, and found that this was so.”

This resource provides guidance on the non-exam assessment (NEA) requirements for A-level English Literature B, and should be read in conjunction with the NEA requirements set out in the specification. It develops and exemplifies the requirements, but is wholly consistent with them. Sample student responses accompany this guidance.

Given that a central tenet of Specification B is how meanings in literature arise and given that the specification encourages students to have their own voices, it is fitting that the title of the NEA component is ‘Theory and independence’. The purpose of this component is for students to explore aspects of their chosen prose and poetry texts through the lens of different critical ideas and for them to engage with the notion that meanings in literature are not fixed and are influenced by many external factors that may be brought to bear on texts. This area of the course provides a challenging and wide-ranging opportunity for an introduction to different ways of reading and for independent study. To that end, few restrictions are placed on the student’s freedom to choose their own texts and shape their own task but the following requirements must be met:

The introduction to the NEA should provide students with a detailed review of the above requirements and guidance on what it means to work independently (e.g. productive research skills, effective time management). The point at which students begin their NEA preparation will depend on individual school and college decisions. Schools and colleges may aim to introduce the NEA in the first year of the course. An appropriate opportunity would be the six weeks which follow the completion of AS examinations but other times will be available, especially where schools and colleges are not entering their students for AS.

Schools and colleges will differ in how they approach the NEA and this may be dependent upon whether:

These approaches are equally valid and take account of the different contexts in which schools and colleges will be working. What is important is that each approach recognises that a degree of autonomy in student text and task choice is required. Ideally a range of differentiated texts and tasks will be seen across a submission for this component. Students will, however, choose their texts and shape their tasks with your support (and you will be supported by your NEA Advisor) and the following offers you some guidance on how to help your students make these choices.

This component is supported by the AQA critical anthology, which has accessible extracts on a range of theoretical ideas. The six sections in the critical anthology encourage students to think about how literature might reflect and be affected by ideas about:

  • narrative construction and how the texts work (Narrative theory)
  • gender (Feminist theory)
  • economics and social organisation (Marxist theory)
  • nature and the survival of the planet (Eco-critical theory)
  • nationality, identity and power (Post-colonial theory)
  • aesthetics and value (Literary value and the Canon)
  • Obviously teachers will have to decide how the critical anthology will be introduced. Ideally, the theoretical material should be used to support and inform the reading of all texts studied during the whole course. If this is done, students will have gained a solid understanding of how texts can be interpreted in multiple ways thereby enabling them to arrive at their own interpretations and become confident autonomous readers. If students are not introduced to theoretical material prior to their NEA study, teachers will need to ensure that they are helped in their reading of the chosen sections of the critical anthology, from which students can choose critical views to apply. By studying these critical theories, they will see how meanings in texts can be laid open for negotiation and debate and students may choose to read beyond the extracts provided in the critical anthology.

    Advice on text choice

    The NEA component allows students and teachers much more freedom in the choice of texts than the examined components and so enables the aptitudes and interests of students to be taken into account when texts are being selected. When supporting students with their choice of texts, the following guidance is useful:

    • both texts should be of sufficient weight and of suitable ‘quality’ for A-level study; the set text lists for the examined components help to exemplify what is meant by a substantial text, particularly in relation to selecting an appropriate amount of poetry for the poetry ‘text’. Remember, however, that the A-level set texts cannot be used in NEA.
    • texts chosen for study must maximise opportunities for writing with reference to the AQA critical anthology
    • texts must allow access to a range of critical views and interpretations, including over time in the conventional response, which students can evaluate and apply autonomously.

    Advice on task choice

    We encourage schools and colleges to check task titles with their AQA NEA Adviser before students embark on their research, especially where there may be some uncertainty about the appropriateness of texts or the approach being taken.

    Of the two pieces of writing that make up the final folder, one must be a conventional response, of which examination essays are examples, but the other can be a re-creative piece if the student so wishes. The re-creative option requires a different approach and could provide more enjoyment and challenge. However, it is perfectly acceptable to produce two conventional pieces of work. The conventional piece could be presented in the form of literary journalism if the student so wishes, so long as it meets all the criteria.

    What is important, given that the NEA assesses all five assessment objectives (AOs), is that each task must allow access to them all. Students should be familiar with this concept by the time they approach the NEA as all AOs are tested in all questions in the examined components 1 and 2. The exemplar NEA responses are good examples of how access to all AOs is enabled by the task and the moderator commentary explains how the AOs have been addressed by the student.

    The conventional response

    A conventional essay will focus on debate and invite students to explore potential meanings in a literary text using critical theories and ideas. As with the examination questions, tasks need to address the assessment objectives, but with NEA there can be more flexible approaches.

    Exemplar student response E is not unlike those in Section B of the two examined components in that the student is responding to the extent to which he/she agrees with a given view. Whilst the directive to include relevant comment on authorial method is not explicit here, the importance of students integrating into their debates comment about the writer’s methods also applies here. Students should know their NEA text well so that they can discuss method in an explicit way, and can make judicious choices in their selection of supporting material.

    Given that the text being written about in this exemplar response is a novel, the discussion will be on narrative method. Comment on characterisation, sequencing, structure, voices, settings and language should be woven into the argument. In this task, a student would need to think about how Burgess’s methods have helped him or her to decide to what extent they can agree that A Clockwork Orange is a protest novel about the powerlessness of human beings against ruthless autocratic governments.

    It is worth considering how key terms in the exemplar task wording enable different AOs to be accessed:

    A Clockwork Orange is a protest novel about the powerlessness of human beings against ruthless autocratic governments.’

    Using ideas from the critical anthology to inform your argument, to what extent do you agree with this view?

    AO1: Articulate informed, personal and creative responses to literary texts, using associated concepts and terminology, and coherent, accurate written expression.

    In responding to the extent he/she agrees with the given view, AO1 will be tested through the way the student constructs the argument and expresses ideas.

    AO2: Analyse ways in which meanings are shaped in literary texts.

    AO2 is set up in the requirement for the student to focus on the ways Burgess has/has not presented A Clockwork Orange as a protest novel, and on the implied presentation of human beings as powerless and governments as ruthless and autocratic.

    AO3: Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which literary texts are written and received.

    AO3 will be addressed through the student showing his/her understanding of a range of possible contexts which arise from power and powerlessness (e.g. cultural, gender, political and historical contexts), and of the feminist/Marxist readings of the text that are possible.

    AO4: Explore connections across literary texts.

    AO4 is targeted by the requirement to refer to the critical anthology, which is itself another text. The student will also connect implicitly with other ‘protest’ texts.

    AO5: Explore literary texts informed by different interpretations.

    In debating the extent to which A Clockwork Orange is a protest novel about the powerlessness of human beings against ruthless autocratic governments, the student will directly engage with different interpretations.

    The re-creative response

    A re-creative response, supported by a commentary, allows students to explore aspects of a text and its potential meanings while at the same time experience enjoyment in the creative aspects of their task. The purpose of a re-creative response is to offer a critical reading of the base text that has been informed by working with the critical anthology.

    Re-creative work can find the ‘narrative gaps’ or ‘absence’ in a base text and by filling some of these gaps students offer a critical reading of the text. New light can be shed on a text and its potential ambiguities by re-creating part of it through a new voice and genre. A conventional reading of a text might be reconfigured by offering a reading from a different critical and/or contextual starting point.

    There is no requirement for students to replicate the form and language of the chosen base text, but the selection of narrative voice matters. It is often far more enlightening and interesting to present the point of view of a character who is at times marginalised as a voice in the base text.

    The re-creative piece has to be accompanied by a commentary in which the student needs to establish a clear connection between the re-creative piece, the base text and the relevant section of the critical anthology. The commentary should illustrate the significant choices that the student has made in the production of the re-creative piece accompanied by an explanation of how those choices have led to a critical reading. Both the re-creative piece and the commentary need to be incorporated in the 1200 -1500 word count. An equal word count between re-creative piece and commentary is not expected. The relative word count will depend upon the form of the re-creative piece and the detail needed in the commentary. The exemplar re-creative NEA responses exemplify these points.

    The unpacking of the assessment objectives in the re-creative task is slightly different in that there are two pieces of writing to consider: the re-creative piece itself and the commentary. It is worth considering how key terms in the wording of the task in exemplar student response A enable different AOs to be accessed:

    Using Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’, write a monologue by Ulysses’ wife in which she reflects on the words he speaks.

    Use ideas from the critical anthology to inform your work and include a commentary explaining how you have explored ideas from Feminist Theory and/ or Marxist Theory and/ or Narrative Theory and /or Post- colonial Theory in your re-creative piece.

    AO1: Articulate informed, personal and creative responses to literary texts, using associated concepts and terminology, and coherent, accurate written expression.

    AO1 will be assessed across both the monologue and the commentary, where the latter will invite the use of critical concepts and terminology.

    AO2: Analyse ways in which meanings are shaped in literary texts.

    From the task it is clear that the student would need to demonstrate, in both the re-creative piece and in the commentary, an understanding of how monologues work in terms of structure, language and of voice.

    AO3: Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which literary texts are written and received.

    The reflection of a wife on her husband’s words invites comment on gender contexts linked to the Victorian age in which Tennyson was writing. Focusing on his words as fiction and offering alternative words invites discussion of literary contexts.

    AO4: Explore connections across literary texts.

    The requirement to refer to the critical anthology will explicitly address AO4. In writing about monologues students will be showing their understanding of how the form works and implicitly be connecting with other monologues.

    AO5: Explore literary texts informed by different interpretations.

    AO5 will be focused on in the commentary as the student reflects on different possible readings from the critical anthology and how these open up different interpretations.

    Advice on writing the NEA responses

    Having completed the study of their chosen texts, researched critical theories and devised an appropriate task, students will need guidance on how to pull their ideas together into a coherent response. Here again the exemplar NEA responses offer excellent examples of how to structure a sophisticated argument/re-creative piece and the moderator commentaries explain how these candidates achieve this. Some key points to note are:

    • the task should remain central to the argument
    • when considering the application of theoretical ideas, students should ensure that cohesion is retained when more than one theoretical area is applied
    • conventional responses benefit from close textual detail and precise references, which should be integrated relevantly into the argument
    • contexts and critical views should not be bolted on but instead should be woven through the response
    • a re-creative piece should be clearly anchored in the base text; the commentary should establish effective connections with both the critical anthology and the base text ; the student should make clear the conscious choices that have been made for this piece.
    • Supervising and authenticating students' work

      The role and responsibilities of the teacher in supervising and authenticating students’ work are set out in Section 6.1 of the specification. It is worthwhile emphasising that the teacher must confirm that each essay submitted is the work of the individual student. The JCQ (Joint Council for Qualifications) document Instructions for conducting coursework provides further guidance about the level of support and guidance that is appropriate for teachers to provide to students. In accordance with JCQ guidance, the following support would not be acceptable:

      • having reviewed the candidate’s work, giving detailed advice and suggestions as to how the work may be improved in order to meet the assessment criteria
      • giving detailed indications of errors or omissions which leave the candidate no opportunity for individual initiative
      • giving advice on specific improvements needed to meet the assessment criteria
      • providing writing frames specific to the task (e.g. outlines, paragraph headings or section headings)
      • intervening personally to improve the presentation or content of the work.

      Awarding marks

      The role and responsibilities of teachers in submitting marks are set out in Section 6.6 of the specification. Please note that a mark out of 50 is required. This means that the mark you award against the assessment criteria for each response, which will be out of 25, should be added together and entered onto the candidate record form, before submitting marks to AQA.

    One thought on “Litb4 Coursework Ideas

    Leave a comment

    L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *