tag(s):20th century (50), authors (122), black history (56), civil war (143), constitution (88), hispanic (17), jefferson (20), lincoln (84), new deal (5), primary sources (93), segregation (16), thanksgiving (33), veterans (19), washington (29), westward expansion (29), womens suffrage (25), wright brothers (20)
In the ClassroomWhen introducing a new unit, show students photos from the era and have them describe what they see and what period they think it is. Find plenty of questions and activities (including a blank analysis organizer for students) in the Teacher's Guides. Also look at Library of Congress: for Teachers, reviewed here. Encourage your students to use this tool for projects. Challenge students to find a photo (legally permitted for reproduction), and then narrate the photo as if it is a news report. Have students create a multimedia presentation using Voicethread, reviewed here. This tool allows users to narrate a picture. Include this site on your class webpage for students and parents to access as a reference.
This resource requires PDF reader software like Adobe Acrobat.
Women’s History Month Quiz
Created by Margaret Zierdt, National Women’s History Project Board member
Can You Identify These Women of Great Vision and Achievement Whose History Is Our Strength
- Who became the first female Secretary of State of the United States, appointed by President Clinton in 1997?
- Who took over management of Columbia Sportswear Company in the late 1930’s, when it was near bankruptcy, and turned it into the largest American ski apparel company worth $4 billion in 1972?
- Who was the first woman in modern history to lead a major Native-American tribe, the Cherokee Nation?
- Who was the first American woman poet whose poetry was published in London in 1650?
- Who is considered the first American woman to be ordained by full denominational authority in 1864, and who also campaigned vigorously for full woman suffrage?
- Who was the first woman of color elected to the U.S. Congress and was a founding member of the National Women’s Political Caucus?
- Who was the ecologist writer whose path breaking book, “Silent Spring” in 1962 initiated the environmental movement?
- Who was the first black woman and the youngest poet laureate in American history when she was appointed in 1993?
- Who was imprisoned and then hanged for her Quaker faith in Boston in 1660, and 400 years later her statue was placed in front of the state House?
- Who was the female lawyer who worked for equal rights and suffrage, co-founded the ACLU in 1910, and helped write the Equal Rights Amendment?
- Who led the fight to criminalize lynching, helped form the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), and aided many black people who migrated from the South to Chicago?
- Who became the first female president of Harvard University when she was named its 28th president in 2007?
- Who became the first woman vice-president candidate on a major political party ticket when selected in 1984?
- Who volunteered as a nurse during the Civil War, earning the nickname “Mother,” and after peace became an attorney advocating for veterans?
- Who was the United States delegate to the United Nations who championed and won approval of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948?
- Who earned a graduate degree from Oberlin College in 1888, was the first black woman to serve on a Board of Education (in D.C.), sued to integrate restaurants in the 1950’s, integrated the American Association of University Women at age 85, and was a founding member of NAACP?
- Who wrote “The Feminine Mystique” in 1968 and became a leading figure in the Women’s Movement?
- Who was the first woman promoted to brigadier general in the U.S. Air Force (1971) and the first female major general in any armed forces in 1973?
- Who was a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Navy credited with developing the COBOL computer language, and with coining the phrase “debugging” to fix a computer?
- Who was one of the first black physicians in New York City and the first black woman to graduate from Bellevue Hospital medical school in 1926?
- Who was the free-thinking woman who was forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and sought sanctuary in Roger Williams’ Rhode Island in 1637?
- Who is the architect of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., which she designed when she was only 21 years old?
- Who wrote the path-breaking book, “On Death and Dying” in 1969 which educated and supported helpers who provide compassionate care?
- Who was the American founder and leader of the Shakers in the 1770’s who advocated equality, individual responsibility and peace?
- What woman ran for president on the National Equal Rights Party, receiving 4,149 votes in 6 states in 1884?
- Who was the first woman to win an unshared Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1983 for her discovery that genes can change positions on the chromosome?
- Who led the fight to integrate military nursing services in WW II and then achieved the integration of the American Nurses Association in 1948?
- Who was the U.S. president’s wife who saved historic paintings when the British army burned the White House in 1814?
- Who is the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in physics in 1963 after she discovered the structure of atoms?
- Who is the longest-serving female U.S. senator, elected in 1986?
- Who was the astronomer who discovered a comet, named for her, on October 1, 1847, and who was the first woman elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1850), and the first professor of astronomy at Vassar College?
- Who was first black woman lawyer in the United States and the first woman admitted to District of Columbia bar in 1872?
- What woman met Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the International Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 and worked with her for women’s equality for the next half century?
- Who worked with W.E.B. DuBois’ Niagara Movement and was one of the few white co-founders of NAACP in 1910?
- What woman attended the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, signed the Declaration of Sentiments, and lived to see women win the vote in 1920?
- Who ran a plantation in South Carolina and successfully introduced the cultivation of indigo as a commercial staple?
- Who was the first black prima donna soprano at the Metropolitan Opera, starring from 1961 to 2007, the first black singer to earn the top fee of $2750 for each performance (second only to Birgit Nilsson who got $3000), and winner of 19 Grammy awards?
- Who became the first female rabbi in the U.S. and the second in the world when she was ordained in Cincinnati in 1972?
- Who sculpted the full scale marble statue of Lincoln which is in the Capitol Rotunda, becoming the first female and youngest artist to receive a commission from the government for a statue?
- Who was the first black woman symphonic composer to have a symphony performed by a major orchestra – her Symphony in E Minor was performed in 1933 by the Chicago Symphony?
- Who was the Zionist leader who founded Hadassah, an organization working on health issues for Jewish people in Palestine, and also rescued thousands of children from Germany in the 1930’s?
- Who was the female Brigadier General who was the driving force behind the establishment of the Women in Military Service for America Memorial Building in Arlington Cemetery which opened in 1997?
- What woman wrote the first novel by an American to sell more than a million copies, “The Wide, Wide World”?
- Who was the friend of Abigail Adams who fostered political agitation with her satirical plays and then a three-volume history of the American revolution in 1805?
- Who was the first Native American to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963 for her work in decreasing infant mortality and decreasing tuberculosis?
- Who was the author of “Our Nig,” published in 1859, the first novel by a black person in English, which described racism in the treatment of free blacks in the North by abolitionists?
- Who was the first woman mountaineer to climb over 23,000 feet on Nun Kun in the Himalayas in 1906, a record unbroken until 1934?
- Who is the first woman conductor of a large orchestra, the Baltimore Symphony, appointed in 2007?
- Who introduced America to French cooking in her books and television series from 1963 through the 1990’s?
- What woman has won a total of 56 Grand Slam tennis competitions events and 9 Wimbledon women’s singles titles?
- Madeleine Albright (b. 1937)
- Gertrude Boyle (b. 1925)
- Wilma Mankiller (1945 – 2010)
- Anne Bradstreet (1612 – 1672)
- Olympia Brown (1835 – 1926)
- Patsy Mink (1927 – 2002)
- Rachel Carson (1907 – 1964)
- Rita Dove (b. 1952)
- Mary Dyer (c. 1611 – 1660)
- Crystal Eastman (1881 – 1928)
- Ida Wells-Barnett (1862 – 1931)
- Drew Gilpin Faust (b. 1947)
- Geraldine Ferraro (1935 – 2011)
- Mary Bickerdyke (1817 – 1901)
- Eleanor Roosevelt (1884 – 1962)
- Mary Church Terrell (1863 – 1954)
- Betty Friedan (1921 – 2006)
- Major General Jeanne Holm (1921 – 2010)
- Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Hopper (1906 – 1992)
- May Chinn (1896 – 1980)
- Anne Hutchinson (1591 – c. 1643)
- Maya Lin (b. 1959)
- Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (1926 – 2004)
- Ann Lee (1736 – 1784)
- Belva Lockwood (1830 – 1917)
- Barbara McClintock (1902 – 1992)
- Mabel Staupers (1890 – 1989)
- Dolley Madison (1768 – 1849)
- Maria Goeppert Mayer (1906 – 1972)
- Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) (b. 1936)
- Maria Mitchell (1818 – 1889)
- Charlotte Ray (1850 – 1911)
- Lucretia Mott (1793 – 1880)
- Mary White Ovington (1865 – 1951)
- Charlotte Woodward Pierce (1831 – c. 1921)
- Elizabeth Lucas Pinckney (1722 – 1793)
- Leontyne Price (b. 1927)
- Sally J. Priesand (b. 1946)
- Vinnie Ream (1847 – 1914)
- Florence Smith Price (1887 – 1953)
- Henrietta Szold (1860 – 1945)
- Brigadier General Wilma Vaught, USAF retired (b. 1930)
- Susan Warner (1819 – 1885)
- Mercy Otis Warren (1728 – 1814)
- Anne Dodge Wauneha (1910 – 1997)
- Harriet Wilson (c. 1825 – c. 1900)
- Fanny Workman (1859 – 1925)
- Marion Alsop (b. 1956)
- Julia Child (1912 – 2004)
- Martina Navratilova (b. 1956)
Women Who Worked for Peace Quiz
1. Who was branded a traitor when she begged the British and the Colonials to lay down their arms instead of waging a revolution?
2. Who was active in American Society of Peace in 1828 and served as President of the Pennsylvania Peace Society from 1870 to 1880, and tried to get military training out of public schools and argued that arbitration is the proper means to settle disputes?
3. Who joined William Garrison in founding the New England Non-Resistant Society in 1838 and latter became a famous lecturer for women’s rights?
4. Who started “Mother’s Day” as an annual event when women could demonstrate against war; first event was a women’s peace festival on June 2, 1873?
5. Who ran for US President on Equal Rights Party in 1884 and 1888 and was an American delegate to the first world peace Congress in Paris in 1889?
6. Who created peace materials for schools as head of WCTU’s Department of Peace and Arbitration from 1887 to 1916 – the largest peace movement of the 19th Century, against military drills, martial toys and conscription?
7. Who organized and led the 1914 peace parade in New York City in 1914 and aided conscientious objectors and refugee relief programs in World War I?
8. Who wrote international best-seller “Lay Down Your Arms” in 1889, was president of Austrian Society for the Friends of Peace and was the first woman to be granted the Novel Peace Prize in 1905?
9. Who co-founded the American School Peace League in 1908 after supporting the international court proposed at the Hague Conference on 1899?
10. Who was the famous suffragist who joined Jane Addams in 1915 in founding the Woman’s Peace Party at a meeting of 3000 women in Washington DC?
11. Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, was first president from 1919 to 1935 of the Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom and was called an unpatriotic subversive by press and the US government?
12. Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 after being secretary-treasurer of the WILPF from 1919-1937 and being called with other pacifists by Wilson “amoral” in 1915 although all the ideas of the Woman’s Peace Party became his 14 points without acknowledging authorship.?
13. Who developed a peace curriculum used in all public schools from 1913 to 1950 and co-founded the American School Peace League in 1908?
14. Who was a charter member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1915; founded the War Resisters League in 1923 and in 1940 the Pacifist Teachers League?
15. Who joined 49 other Congress members in voting against entry into World War I; was the only member to vote against World War II and organized a Brigade which demonstrated against the Vietnam War in 1968?
16. Who was an organizer of the Woman’s Peace Party, a leader of American Union Against Militarism, and latter co-founded the ACLU?
17. Who suggested achieving World Peace Through a Peoples Parliament – a group of 60 from different economic ranks and professions in 1944?
18. Who was executive secretary of he Pennsylvania branch of WILPJ for 40 years. organized conferences and build a huge membership; served on the board of SANE, working against nuclear proliferation?
19.Who attacked the Catholic “just-war” theory with pacifist views , supported draft-card burning, opposed the Vietnam conscription and war and profoundly impacted “The Challenge of Peace” in 1983?
20. Who protested nuclear weapons with the Committee for Nonviolent Action in 1983, and was imprisoned where she “Prison Notes”?
21. Who helped found Women Strike for Peace in 1961 which opposed the Vietnam War – the first woman elected to Congress on a women’s rights peace platform?
22. Who was a founder of the Women’s Institute for Freedom of the Press in 1972 and an activist in Women Strike for Peace?
23. Who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976 with a friend for their efforts against violence in Northern Ireland?
24. Who is the Canadian woman who founded Women’s Action for Nuclear Disarmament (WAND) focusing on women’s priorities as mothers and supporting continuous lobbying actions.?
25. Who was founder of FREEZE in early 1980s which became SANE/FREEZE in 1987 and then Peace Action in 1993?
1. Ann Lee February 29, 1736-September 8, 1784
2. Lucretia Mott January 3, 1793-November 11, 1880
3. Abbey Kelly Foster January 15, 1810-January 14, 1887
4. Julia Ward Howe May 27, 1819-October. 17, 1910
5. Belva Lockwood October 24, 1830-May 19, 1917
6. Hannah Bailey July 5, 1839-October 23, 1923
7. Fanny Garrison Villard Dec. 16, 1844 – July 5, 1928
8. Bertha von Suttner June 9, 1843-June 21, 1914
9. Lucia Ames Mead May 5, 1856-November 1, 1936
10. Carrie Chapman Catt January 9, 1859-March 9, 1947
11. Jane Addams September 6, 1860-May 21, 1935
12.Emily Greene Balch January 8, 1867-January 9, 1961
13. Fannie Andrews September 25, 1867-January 23, 1950
14 Jessie Hughan December 25, 1875 – April 10, 1955
15.Jeannette Rankin June 11, 1880- May 18, 1973
16. Crystal Eastman June 25, 1881-July 8, 1928
17. Nora Stanton Barney September 30, 1883- January 18, 1971
18. Mildred Scott Olmsted December 5, 1890-July 2, 1990
19. Dorothy Day November 8, 1897- November 29, 1980
20. Barbara Deming July 23, 1917-August 2, 1984
21. Bella Abzug July 24, 1920- March 31, 1998
22. Donna Allen August 19, 1920- July 19, 1999
23. Mairead Corrigan Maguire January 27, 1944-
24. Dr. Helen Caldicott August 7, 1938)
25. Randall Forsberg July 23, 1943 – October 19, 2007
Women in Math and Science Quiz
Created by Margaret Zierdt, NWHP Board Member
1. Who turned to the study of ancient climates and cosmology after teaching at the University of Colorado (1963-1972) and working with Enrico Fermi on the nuclear reactor for the atomic bomb (1943-45) ?
2. Who photographed wildlife in Africa and worked for preservation of animals, especially in the Congo, in her books on conservation?
3. Who earned more than 27 patents including a safety feature for sharp shuttles in textile mills, improved window sashes, and perfected a machine to create square bottoms in paper bags?
4. Who spurred the rise of molecular biology using mathematical techniques and published 192 monographs while lecturing at Smith College for 30 years?
5. Who was a famous and highly respected mathematician, astronomer and neo-Platonic philosopher in Alexandria who designed an astrolabe, a plan sphere, and a method of distilling water; and was tortured and torn apart by a mob because she would not convert to Christianity?
6. Who was the first African-American woman to earn a degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery in 1890?
7. Who was an army surgeon in the Civil War and won the Congressional Medal of Honor; and worked for dress reform, declaring “corsets are coffins”?
8. Who studied the life history of the song sparrow after authoring The Birds of Oklahoma in 1920?
9. Who received patents – probably the first American woman – for cleaning and curing Indian corn in 1715, and for staining palmetto leaves and straw for hats and bonnets in 1716?
10. Who expanded the theory that the Appalachian area was where plants survived during the Ice Age and wrote the classic Deciduous Forests of EasternNorth America in 1950?
11. Who joined the Office of Naval Research in 1946 to promote government funding for scientific research and encouraged women to engage in math research as Dean of Graduate Studies at CUNY?
12. Who studied societies in the South Pacific and published popular accounts of her work from 1925 to 1939?
13. Who was the first computer programmer (1833), largely self-taught in math, for whom the programming language ADA was named by the Department of Defense in 1977?
14. Who discovered a comet named for her in 1847, taught astronomy at Vassar, and was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences?
15. Who became the first African-American graduate of a nursing school in 1879 – New England Hospital for Women and Children?
16. Who explored and unearthed ancient Mexican art as well as examples of religious rites and military exploits of original people in 1902?
17. Who studied damage done by crustacea to ships and wharves, and also the dangers of pesticides and radioactive materials in the ocean? After serving as chair of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1973, she was governor of Washington State in 1976.
18. Who has been named the founder of the profession of home economics? She worked for better nutrition, and set up balanced meals at Chicago’s 1893 World Fair.
19. Who was the first woman to earn a dental degree in 1866 from Ohio College of Dental Surgery?
20. Who was the first Native American to graduate from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1890? She returned to the Omaha reservation in Nebraska to serve 1,300 patients and helped set up a hospital in 1913.
21. Who patented a vacuum process of preserving food in 1872, an improved oil burner in 1880, and three more objects in 1904, 1912 and 1914?
22. Who originated the concept of a cotton gin and helped solve the mechanical problems Eli Whitney encountered?
23. Who was the biophysicist who developed standards for radiation protection, and established techniques for treating tumors with radiation and X-rays?
24. Who developed the computer programming language COBOL in 1960 for the Navy, and rose to rank of Admiral?
25. Who collected more than 12,200 sets of plants in the western world after attending the Chicago Exposition in 1893, and improved disease-resistant grasses? An avid suffragist, she was arrested and force-fed for her advocacy.
26. Who improved war-time gas masks, invented “invisible” (nonreflective) glass, received other military patents, and was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in physics from Cambridge University in 1926?
27. Who was probably the first woman in America to perform major surgery when she successfully removed an ovarian tumor in 1875?
28. Who produced a lipstick that would not rub off or stain in 1950, with sales over 10 million dollars in 1953?
29. Who used spectroscopy to analyze organic compounds at Mt. Holyoke as head of chemistry department from 1914-1946? In 1937 she was the first recipient of the Garvan Medal for service in chemistry.
30. Who is the author of Silent Spring and other books on the environmental protection of the world?
1. Leona Marshall Libby, Aug. 9, 1919 – Nov. 10, 1986
2. Mary Jobe Akeley, Jan. 29, 1878 – July 19, 1966
3. Margaret Knight, Feb. 14, 1838 – Oct. 12, 1914
4. Dorothy Wrinch, Sept. 12, 1894 – Feb. 11, 1976
5. Hypatia, c. 355 – 415
6. Dr. Ida Gray, 1867 – 1953
7. Dr. Mary Walker, Nov. 26, 1832 – Feb. 21, 1919
8. Margaret Nice, Dec. 6, 1883 – June 26, 1974
9. Sybilla Masters, d. Aug. 23, 1720
10. E. Lucy Braun, Apr. 19, 1880 – Mar. 5, 1971
11. Mina Rees, Aug. 2, 1902 – Oct. 25, 1997
12. Margaret Mead, Dec. 16, 1901 – Nov. 15, 1978
13. Lady Ada Lovelace, Dec. 10, 1815 – Nov. 27, 1852
14. Maria Mitchell, Aug. 1, 1818 – June 28, 1889
15. Mary Eliza Mahoney, 1845 – 1926
16. Zelia Nuttall, Sept. 6, 1857 – Apr. 12, 1933
17. Dixie Lee Ray, 1914 –
18. Ellen Swallow Richards, Dec. 3, 1842 – Mar. 30, 1911
19. Lucy Hobbs Taylor, Mar. 14, 1833 – Oct. 3, 1910
20. Susan LaFlesche Picotte, June 17, 1865 – Sept. 15, 1915
21. Amanda Jones, Oct. 19, 1835 – Mar. 31, 1914
22. Catherine Greene, Feb. 17, 1755 – Sept. 2, 1814
23. Edith Quimby, July 10, 1891 – Oct. 11, 1982
24. Grace Hopper, Dec. 9, 1906 – Jan. 1, 1992
25. Agnes Chase, Apr. 20, 1869 – Sept. 24, 1963
26. Katharine Blodgett, Jan. 10, 1898 – Oct. 12, 1979
27. Emeline Cleveland, Sept. 22, 1839 – Dec. 8, 1878
28. Hazel Bishop, Aug. 17, 1906 – Dec. 5, 1998
29. Emma Carr, July 23, 1880 – Jan. 7, 1972
30. Rachel Carson, May 27, 1907 – Apr. 14, 1964
Test Your Women’s History I.Q.
Fifteen women to identify by their achievements.
1. Which mother led a 125–mile march of child workers all the way from the mills of Pennsylvania to President Theodore Roosevelt’s vacation home on Long Island?
2. One of the most important Union spies and scouts during the Civil War was a Black woman who had escaped from slavery. Can you name her?
3. Before the 1960s, farm workers in the U.S. were not paid even the minimum wage, and had no influential representatives to fight for their rights. What part did Dolores Huerta play in changing this situation?
4. The line of beauty products she created for African–American people made her the first Black woman millionaire in the United States. Who was she, and when did she do this?
5. She came to the U.S. when she was a teenager to study science and stayed to become “the world’s foremost female experimental physicist.” Her most famous experiment disproved what had been thought to be a fundamental scientific law. Who is this outstanding Asian–American scientist?
6. She took her job as “First Lady” seriously, traveling the country and the world to gather information about the problems and concerns of workers, children, minorities, and the poor. She wrote a daily newspaper column and made frequent radio broadcasts. Who was this active wife of a president?
7. When the Mexican Revolution of 1910 reached the Texas border, she and her friends organized La Cruz Blanca, The White Cross, to take care of the wounded. They nursed people from both sides of the fighting. She was also known as a journalist and community activist. Who was she and where did she live?
8. Who was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Islands, deposed when American business and military interests wanted to annex Hawaii to the U.S.?
9. She opened “Hull House” in a run–down Chicago neighborhood, a community center to improve conditions for poor immigrants. The program of English–language classes, childcare, health education and recreational opportunities soon inspired hundreds of other settlement houses throughout the country. Her name?
10. Daughter and granddaughter of Paiute Indian chiefs from Nevada, she lobbied Congress, wrote extensively, and traveled across country during the late 1800s lecturing on the hardships brought upon Native Americans by the U.S. Government. Her name?
11. Her 1939 Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial drew a crowd of 75,000. Who was she, and why was she singing there?
12. Who printed the first copy of the Declaration of Independence that included the signers’ names?
13. Clara Barton (1821–1912) is best known for founding the American Red Cross, but she also played a vital role during the Civil War. What did she do?
14. She is regarded as the greatest ballerina born in America. Her father was the Chief of the Osage Indians. Can you name her?
15. Why is Rachel Carson (1907–1964) considered the mother of the environmental movement?
- The feisty labor organizer, Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), did just that in 1903. Called “Mother” Jones by everyone, her goal for the march was to bring the evils of child labor to the attention of the president and the national press
- Harriet Tubman (1820–1913), who also led over 300 people in their escape from slavery via the system of safe–houses known as the Underground Railroad.
- Dolores Huerta (b. 1930), a long–time Chicana labor activist, co–founded the United Farm Workers union in 1962. She served for over two decades as the union’s vice–president and chief lobbyist, savvy labor contract negotiator, and nationwide speaker.
- In 1905, Madam C.J. Walker (1867–1919) began developing an effective hair lotion, and then a special comb to straighten curly hair. She eventually employed 3,000 people, mostly Black women, to work in her factories and sell her line of products.
- Chien–Shiung Wu (1912 – 1997) received both the National Science Medal and the internationally respected Wolf prize for her scientific research. Her most famous experiment showed that conservation of parity could be violated in nature.
- Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) was America’s First Lady for 12 years. Later, she served as U.S. delegate to the United Nations where she was instrumental in securing passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
- Jovita Idar (1885–1946) lived in Laredo, Texas. As a journalist, she wrote articles for Spanish–language newspapers, like El Progreso and El Heraldo Cristiano, which argued for Mexican Americans’ equal rights.
- Queen Liliuokalani (1838–1917). A revolution, encouraged and actively assisted by American interests backed by a U.S. Navy gunboat, established a provisional government in 1893. Among her lasting legacies: she composed over 200 songs, including “Aloha Oe”.
- Jane Addams (1860–1935). One of the first generation of female college graduates at a time when the world was not yet ready to give educated women positions of responsibility, found her own way to lead a useful life. She won the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize for her lifetime dedication to the cause of international peace.
- Sarah Winnemucca (1844–1891), later named a chief in her own right. Her autobiography, Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, was one of the first books by a Native American.
- Marian Anderson (b. 1902), who had earlier been barred from the singing in the Washington’s Constitution Hall because she was Black. Her open–air concert was a triumph over bigotry for this international star.
- Mary Katherine Goddard (1738–1816), newspaper publisher, had such a strong reputation in the colonies that when Congress fled to Baltimore in 1776 they trusted her with the revolutionary task of printing their treasonous document. Goddard risked arrest by the British when she included her own name as printer.
- No provisions had been made for taking care of Union soldiers. Clara Barton (1821–1912) solicited donated supplies and took them directly onto battlegrounds, to get food, bandages, and medical supplies to the wounded. She also helped document the 22,000 men killed or missing in action so their families could be notified.
- Maria Tallchief (b. 1925), gained international stardom as prima ballerina of the New York City Ballet in a career that spanned 23 years. In 1980, she and her sister, Marjorie, founded the Chicago City Ballet.
- Rachel Carson (1907–1964), a writer and biologist, touched off an international controversy about the environmental effects of pesticides with her 1962 book, The Silent Spring. The book became a best–seller and the foundation of modern ecological awareness.
Men Who Supported Women’s Rights Quiz
- In 1775, this Revolutionary-era patriot published wrote an essay supporting women’s rights. In An Occasional Letter on the Female Sex, h e wrote “[T]he women, almost — without exception — at all times and in all places, adored and oppressed. Man, who has never neglected an opportunity of exerting his power…”
- At a time when married women did not have any property rights, he introduced a bill to grant married women the right “to hold and control property” in the New York State Legislature in 1837.
- This Quaker father was an important role-model for his famous daughter, and provided her with financial and moral support in her work for abolitionism and women’s rights.
- A Unitarian minister, he was one of the most a well-known abolitionist and reformers on the national scene. He preached the first women’s rights sermon in 1845.
- As early as 1847, as a member of the Indiana House of Representatives, he supported women’s right to vote; and in 1868 as a member of U.S. House of Representatives, he introduced a constitutional amendment conferring the right to vote on women.
- The patriarch of one the wealthiest and most prominent Black families in Philadelphia, this 19 th century activist used his considerable wealth to support progressive causes including abolitionism and women’s rights.
- One of the strongest voices for abolitionism, this free Black man attended the first women’s rights conference in 1848 and supported the controversial issue of woman suffrage. He continued working for woman’s suffrage throughout his life, including a speech at a women’s rights conference on the day he died in 1895.
- In 1850, as a member of the Indiana Constitutional Convention he was instrumental in securing to widows and married women control of their property, and later succeeded in passing a state law giving greater freedom to women in divorce.
- He preached a sermon, Women’s Right to Preach the Gospel, in 1853 at the ordination of Antoinette Brown, the first woman to be ordained a minister in the United States.
- On February 26, 1861, this self-made man presented a college board with half of his fortune and a deed for 200 acres of land to be used to build one of the first women’s colleges in the United States.
- A Cayuga chief, while addressing the New York Historical Society in 1866, he encouraged white men to use the occasion of Southern reconstruction to establish universal suffrage, “even of the women, as in his nation.”
- He helped draft the constitution of the feminist American Equal Rights Association in 1865, and served as vice-president of the New Hampshire Woman Suffrage Association. In 1868, he was co-editor with Elizabeth Cady Stanton of The Revolution, published by Susan B. Anthony.
- This man, who represented California in the U.S. Senate, introduced a joint resolution proposing an amendment that would enfranchise women on January 10, 1878. He was good friends with both Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
- A Native American who served as director of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Science, he gave a brief argument for modern American women to consider in 1909: “…that the red woman that lived in New York state five hundred years ago had far more political rights and enjoyed a much wider liberty than the twentieth century woman of civilization. . . ”
- He helped found the Men’s Equal Suffrage League in 1910 and was President of the Men’s Equal Suffrage League of New York State when he delivered his famous commencement address at Bryn Mawr in 1913, titled Woman Suffrage and Why I Believe in It.
- To help women in California win the right to vote in 1911, this wealthy Pasadena banker founded the Political Equality League. He was very successful in recruiting prominent business men to join the California Woman Suffrage campaign which mobilized thousands of local supporters.
- In the 1920 U.S. presidential campaign leaflets addressed “To the Woman Voter” were distributed that praised this imprisoned Socialist Party presidential candidate for his long time commitment to women’s rights including his support of votes for women, equal pay in the workplace, and a stance against the criminalization of prostitution.
- In 1972, this world-famous singer-songwriter recorded a song with his wife that includes these lyrics:
“We insult her every day on TV
And wonder why she has no guts or confidence
When she’s young we kill her will to be free
We put her down for begin dumb . . . “
- A famous sport journalist, he wrote an article, “Why I Support the ERA” that appeared in the October 1975 issue of Ms.Magazine.
- A poet and community organizer, he has been credited with creating the foundation for Chicano letters and literature. He wrote An Open Letter to Carolina, in which he reflected on relations between women and men from his perspective as a Chicano.
- At the Equal Rights Amendment rally in Washington, DC in 1981, this award- winning actor gave an impassioned speech calling on the American people to take action to protect the rights of their daughters, wives, sisters and mothers by working to make the ERA the 27th Amendment to the US Constitution.
- A gender equity specialist since 1985, he has hosted a national anti-sexist men’s conference, served on the board of the National Organization for Men Against Sexism, and served as a volunteer at the Tucson Rape Crisis Center.
- Founder of the Woman Suffrage Media Project in 1993, he spent nearly 20 years researching and writing about the drive for equal rights, resulting in his landmark book, Winning the Vote: The Triumph of the American Woman Suffrage Movement.
- A contemporary American sociologist, he is editor of Men and Masculinities, spokesperson for the National Organization for Men Against Sexism, and the co-author of Against the Tide: Pro-Feminist Men in the U.S., 1776–1990.
- This award-winning documentary film maker combines the art of the visual medium with an investigation of social issues. He received an Academy Award nomination for Documentary Short Subject for his first film, Sewing Women, an oral history of his mother testifying to her extraordinary tenacity, inner strength, and courage.
- Thomas Paine (February 9, 1737– June 8, 1809)
- Thomas Herttell (1771-1849)
- Daniel Anthony (1794-1862)
- Samuel Joseph May ( September 12, 1797-July 1, 1871)
- George Washington Julian(May 5, 1817–July 7, 1899)
- Robert Purvis (August 4, 1810–April 15, 1898)
- Frederick Douglass ( February 1818–February 20, 1895)
- Robert Dale Owen(1801-1877)
- Reverend Luther Lee (November 30, 1800-1889)
- Ma tthew Vassar (April 29, 1792–June 23, 1868)
- Dr. Peter Wilson, (1761-1837)
- Parker Pillsbury (September 22, 1809–July 7, 1898)
- Aaron A. Sargent (September 28, 1827-August 14, 1887)
- Arthur Caswell Parker (April 5, 1881–January 1, 1955)
- MaxEastman (J anuary 4, 1883–March 25, 1969)
- John Hyde Braly ( 1839? – ?)
- Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926)
- John Lennon (October 9, 1940-December 8, 1980)
- Howard Cosell (March 25, 1918-April 23, 1995)
- Abelardo Delgado (1947- )
- Alan Alda (January 28, 1936)
- Timothy Wernette (1947-)
- Robert P. J. Cooney, Jr. (November 27, 1950-)
- Michael Scott Kimmel(1951-)
- Arthur Dong (October 30, 1953-)
Black Women’s History 40 Question Challenge
Created by Margaret Zierdt, National Women’s History Project Board Member
- Who was head of National Council of Negro Women for 40 years and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal for her work for social equality?
- Who was an advocate for civil rights, a fund raiser for NAACP, and the first black person to sign a long-term Hollywood contract in 1942?
- Who was member of Harlem Renaissance, an anthropologist, and author of many books, including “Their Eyes Were Watching God”?
- Who was the first American woman to win three gold medals in track and field – in the 1960 Olympics for the 100 and 200 meters and the 400 meter relay?
- Who was denied permission to sing in the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) auditorium because of her race in 1939, but later became the first black person to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in 1955?
- Who is the dancer, singer, actor, fund raiser, author, and poet who read a specially-composed poem at President Bill Clinton’s inauguration in 1993?
- Who was a nightclub and cabaret idol of Paris in the 1920’s and a freedom fighter during World War II?
- What black woman chemist developed an extract from the Awa Root which relieved leprosy symptoms when injected and which was widely used until sulfa drugs were invented in the 1940’s?
- Who was a civil rights activist and President of the Arkansas NAACP who advised the nine high school students who integrated the Little Rock public schools in 1957?
- Who founded the college that became the Bethune-Cookman University in Florida and founded the National Council of Negro Women in 1935?
- Who was the first black female newspaper publisher and editor in North America (in Ontario, Canada), and the first black woman to enroll in law school ( Howard University)?
- Who was the first black woman in the world to earn a pilot’s license, and was a barnstorming aviator who performed daredevil tricks?
- Who was the first black Congresswoman, beginning in 1968; and who in 1972 ran for President and won 151 delegates at the Democratic Convention?
- Who was America’s first great black choreographer, dancer, and teacher who formed the first black dance troupe in the 1940’s?
- Who founded the Children’s Defense Fund in 1973, a group focusing on helping millions of children living in poverty?
- Who was first black woman to win a tennis championship at Wimbledon and at the U.S. Open?
- Who was the first black woman to write a Broadway play (1959) which was made into a movie (1961), “A Raisin in the Sun”?
- Who was the first black concert pianist to play with a European orchestra in 1904?
- Who was first woman of color to go into space on the shuttle Endeavor in 1992?
- Who was the first African-American woman to serve in the U.S. Cabinet – as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under President Carter in 1977, and then served as Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1979?
- Who was the first woman bank president in America?
- What slave named Isabella became a fiery orator supporting anit-slavery and woman suffrage after gaining her freedom?
- Who is considered the first black woman journalist who advocated for women’s rights and the abolition of slavery?
- Who was an award-winning poet who penned “For My People” in 1942, and a novelist who wrote “Jubilee” in 1966?
- Who was the black educator who founded the National Training School for Girls about 1909 in Washington, D.C. which was re-named in her honor after her death?
- What woman was the first African-American in New England to serve as Master of a public high school which position she held for 40 years?
- Who was the first black woman lawyer in the U.S. and the first woman admitted to the District of Columbia bar (1872)?
- Who won the 2-day, seven-event heptathlon competition at the Goodwill Games in July, 1986 and won a gold medal in the heptathlon at the Olympics in 1988 and 1992?
- What educator was the fourth African American woman to earn a doctoral degree (from the University of Paris-Sorbonne in 1924)?
- Who was first African-American woman to earn a BA degree in United States – from Oberlin College in 1862?
- Who was the first black president of an Ivy League University and the first female president of Brown University?
- What abstract painter was the first fine arts student to graduate from Howard University, and the first woman to have a solo exhibit at the Whitney Museum of Art in New York City?
- What female athlete is considered “the fastest woman of all time” and set the record for the 100 and 200 meters in 1988?
- Who was a conductor on the Underground Railroad and secured the freedom of at least 300 enslaved people, making 19 trips into the South over 10 years, and served as a spy and scout for the Union Army?
- Who helped black artists and disadvantaged children while winning 13 Grammys and being honored as the “First Lady of Song”?
- What anthropology professor became the first African-American woman president of Spelman College in 1987?
- What actress appeared in “Gone With the Wind,” received a bachelor’s degree in political science in 1975, and won an Emmy for her role on television in 1979?
- Who became a self-made millionaire philanthropist after creating a hair product sold house-to-house, and later held what may be the first national meeting of businesswomen in the U.S. in 1917?
- Who was the first African-American woman to become an ordained minister, a lawyer who helped found the first legal periodical about women’s rights, and co-founded the National Organization of Women?
- What African-American woman was born enslaved, gained her freedom in 1856, became a entrepreneur and philanthropist, and co-founded the first black church in Los Angles?
- Dorothy Height (1912 – 2010)
- Lena Horne (1917 – 2010)
- Zora Neale Hurston (1891 – 1960)
- Wilma Glodean Rudolph (1940 – 1994)
- Marian Anderson (1897 – 1993)
- Maya Angelou (1928)
- Josephine Baker (1906-1975)
- Alice Ball (1892- 1916)
- Daisy Lee May Bates (1914 – 1999)
- Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (1875 – 1955)
- Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823 – 1893)
- Bessie Coleman (1892 – 1926)
- Shirley Chisholm 1924 – 2005)
- Katherine Dunham (1909 – 2006)
- Marian Wright Edelman (1939)
- Althea Gibson ( 1927 – 2003)
- Lorraine Hansberry (1930 – 1965)
- Hazel Harrison (1883 – 1969)
- Dr. Mae Jemison (1956)
- Patricia Roberts Harris (1924 – 1985)
- Maggie Lena Walker (1867- 1934)
- Sojourner Truth (c. 1797 – 1883)
- Maria Stewart (1803 – 1879)
- Margaret Abigail Walker Alexander (1915 – 1998)
- Nannie Burroughs (1879 – 1961)
- Maria Louise Baldwin (1856 – 1922)
- Charlotte Ray (1850 – 1911)
- Jacqueline “Jackie” Joyner Kersee (1962)
- Anna Cooper (1858 or 59 – 1964)
- Mary Jane Patterson (1840 – 1894)
- Ruth Jean Simmons (1945)
- Alma Thomas (1891 – 1978)
- Delorez Florence “Flo-Jo” Griffith Joyner (1959 – 1998)
- Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, c.1822 – 1913)
- Ella Jane Fitzgerald (1917 – 1996)
- Johnnetta Cole (1936)
- The lma “Butterfly” McQueen (1911 – 1995)
- Madam C.J. Walker (1867 – 1919)
- Pauli Murray (1910 – 1985)
- Biddy Mason (1818 – 1891)
Women’s Equality Day Quiz
To help celebrate Women’s Equality Day, the National Women’s History Project developed a quiz to use at your events, or just around your office, or in conversation with friends. It took 72 years for women to win the right to vote.
1. August 26th is celebrated as Women’s Equality Day to commemorate
a. the work women did during the Second World War
b. the anniversary of women winning the right to vote
c. the flappers of the 1920’s
d. the contemporary women’s rights movement
2. In what year did Congresswoman Bella Abzug introduce legislation to ensure that this important American anniversary would be celebrated?
3. In what year did women in the United States win the right to vote?
4. How many years did it take for women to win the right to vote in the United States?
a. 72 years
b. 120 years
c. 20 years
d. 51 years
5. Women in most of the western states won the right to vote years before the Federal Amendment was secured. 2010 is the 100th anniversary of women in Washington State winning the vote. California will celebrate the 100th anniversary of women winning he vote in 2011. Oregon will celebrate the 100th anniversary in 2012. What other state will celebrate the 100th anniversary of women in this state winning the right to vote in 2012?
a. New York
6. What was the name given to the 19th Amendment to the Constitution which guaranteed women’s right to vote in the United States.
a. Abigail Adams Amendment
b. Sojourner Truth Amendment
c. Susan B. Anthony Amendment
d. Gloria Steinem Amendment
7. Women who worked for women’s right to vote were called
d. all of the above
8. The term suffragist is derived from
a. one who suffers
b. a voting tablet in ancient times
c. the Constitution
d. the Bill of Rights
9. How many other countries had already guaranteed women’s right to vote before the campaign was won in the United States?
10. What was the first country that granted women the right to vote?
c. New Zealand
d. United Kingdom
- a (from the first Women’s Rights Convention in 1848 to 1920)
- d New Zealand (1893), Australia (1902), Finland (1906), Norway (1913), Denmark (1915), USSR (1917), Canada (1918), Germany (1918), Poland (1918), Austria (1919), Belgium (1919), Great Britain (1919), Ireland (1919), Luxembourg (1919), the Netherlands (1919), Sweden (1919)
- c (1893)